A mineral-based and chemical-free product that both adults and kids can use. Safe for all face and body skin types. Contains 7% zinc oxide and 5% titanium dioxide, and provides broad-spectrum UVA/UVB SPF 50 protection. Water resistant for up to 80 minutes.
Product is thick and can be difficult to spread.
A non-toxic broad-spectrum sunscreen that provides moderate SPF 30 protection. Natural ingredients are safe for face and body, and are rated to be tear-free. Can be used on children as young as 6 months. The product is also rich in antioxidants and botanicals like white tea, chamomile, and lavender.
This sunscreen may leave a white film on skin.
This reef-safe broad-spectrum sunscreen combines 25% zinc oxide with natural ingredients like coconut oil, beeswax, and calendula flowers. There are only 6 ingredients total, but they provide SPF 50 protection and 81 minutes of water resistance. Safe for face, nose, and ears.
Expensive for just 2 ounces of product.
This 24.5% zinc product is all natural and contains no chemicals that are toxic to coral reefs or marine ecosystems. Its natural formula is perfect for those with sensitive skin or eczema as well. Rated for SPF 50 protection and water resistance for up to 80 minutes.
High zinc content results in a heavy solution that can be hard to squeeze out of the bottle.
A completely eco-friendly and biodegradable product, with no harmful compounds like oxybenzone, octinoxate, or propylene glycol. Broad-spectrum SPF 30 protection will keep you healthy at the beach, with no gluten, fragrances, or irritants to ruin the fun. Water resistant for up to 80 minutes. No animal testing done in development.
Some users have reported an off-putting smell.
We recommend these products based on an intensive research process that's designed to cut through the noise and find the top products in this space. Guided by experts, we spend hours looking into the factors that matter, to bring you these selections.
If you’re traveling to a locale with coral reefs and plan to take a dip in the water, it’s imperative (often by law) that your sunscreen be “reef safe.” This means that it doesn’t contain common chemicals, such as oxybenzone, which can damage coral reefs when they inevitably wash off your body and into the ocean. An alternative to these chemical-based sunscreens are reef-safe sunscreens that offer equivalent sun protection by using physical barriers to reflect the sun’s rays.
A lot of reef-safe sunscreens are marketed for kids and babies, but they can be used equally by adults. Because physical sunscreens use less-toxic ingredients, they’re better for the body and the environment. While the only downside is that some don’t rub in well and leave a white cast to the skin, an increasing number are formulated to absorb better.
To learn more about choosing the right reef-safe sunscreen for you and your family, read our shopping guide below. We’ve also included our top picks of products we trust to help keep your skin protected and coral reefs safe.
If you’re taking a dip in Caribbean or Pacific waters, your personal care products are also ending up in the water and affecting marine life. Scientists estimate that every year 4,000 to 6,000 metric tons of sunscreen wash off of swimmers. By another estimate, 14,000 tons of sunscreen ended up in the ocean in the year 2015 alone. The chemicals in a great number of sunscreens can damage coral reefs in a few ways, including sunscreen-induced bleaching and death.
Coral is an animal, not a plant. It’s a marine invertebrate made up of thousands of animals called polyps. When exposed to a widely used chemical in sunscreens called oxybenzone, its reproductive and endocrine system is disrupted, its DNA damaged (which leads to abnormalities and deformation), and it can cause coral bleaching.
Other common ingredients listed on sunscreen bottles can contribute to coral bleaching and are therefore not considered reef safe:
In addition, these chemicals can awaken coral viruses that make the coral (and the algae they house) sick. Lastly, sunscreen pollution adversely affects some fish populations, sea urchins, and marine mammals.
Instead of using chemical compounds to absorb harmful UVA and UVB rays from the sun, reef-safe sunscreens use physical barriers to block the sun’s rays and reflect them off your skin. You may also see physical sunscreens labeled as “inorganic” or “mineral” sunscreens. Two common ingredients that provide nonchemical sun protection include titanium dioxide and zinc oxide
Be aware, however, that both compounds must be in a form that is coated and non-nanotized in order to be considered reef safe. If not, the formula may harm coral, fish, and other marine organisms due to the miniscule particle size.
Reef-safe sunscreens have similar features to regular sunscreens, including the following:
SPF: Reef-safe sunscreens range in sun protection factor ratings, generally from 30 to 50 SPF. Theoretically, a higher SPF allows you to remain longer in the sun without reapplying, though dermatologists recommend that you reapply sunscreen after two hours and after sweating or swimming.
Water resistant: Sunscreens labeled “water resistant” will stay effective longer when you swim or sweat, either 40 minutes or 80 minutes. No sunscreen is 100% waterproof, however, so it’s still important to reapply it after swimming or heavy sweating.
Baby/kids: Many reef-safe sunscreens are labeled for kids and/or babies. These are likely to be hypoallergenic and, of course, free of the harmful chemicals that can damage reefs. They are also often free of other chemicals like parabens and phthalates that can be harmful to little bodies. Adults with sensitive skin can also slather on these sunscreens.
Fragrance-free: Although reef-safe sunscreens tend to contain more natural ingredients like plant extracts and beeswax, they can still carry a scent. If you have fragrance sensitivities, opt for a fragrance-free or unscented reef-safe sunscreen.
Reef-safe sunscreens typically come in bottles, tubes, sticks, or tins of one to six ounces. Aerosol sunscreens are generally not labeled as reef safe (although there are sunscreen sprays that omit oxybenzone, which is a chemical that can cause environmental damage).
Inexpensive: For a budget-friendly, reef-safe sunscreen, expect to pay between $3 and $5 an ounce. Be sure to double-check the ingredient list to make sure manufacturers haven’t snuck in any potentially damaging chemical fillers.
Mid-range: For a mid-priced reef-safe sunscreen, expect to pay between $6 and $9 an ounce. These may include formulas made with nontoxic organic ingredients and/or free of unwanted chemicals in addition to those that affect coral reefs.
Expensive: For a premium reef-safe sunscreen, expect to pay between $10 and $11 per ounce. These include brands made locally in marine communities affected by sunscreen pollution.
The cult favorite, mineral-based sunscreen ThinkBaby Safe Sunscreen has a perfect score with the Environmental Working Group (EWG) for not containing any biologically toxic ingredients. Of course, it’s free from all the chemical nasties that gunk up coral reefs, and is safe for use on the whole fam. It has a high SPF (50+), includes broad-spectrum protection, and is very water resistant (up to 80 minutes). Plus, it absorbs well into the skin! We also love this brand’s sport sunscreen and their one for faces, all reef safe.
For a local flavor, we love Kokua Sun Care Hawaiian Natural Zinc Sunscreen, which includes Hawaiian-sourced natural ingredients like spirulina, kukui, and macadamia nut oil, and two dozen other skin-nourishing superfoods. It absorbs easily into the skin and moisturizes just like lotion. Its formula also boasts the highest concentration of non-nano zinc oxide on the market: 25% for broad-spectrum (SPF 50), water-resistant protection. Even if you’re not visiting Hawaii on vacation, the subtle smell conjures a vacation vibe.
Q. Which ingredient is better for sun protection: zinc oxide or titanium dioxide?
A. Zinc oxide is scientifically proven to be the safest and most effective physical barrier against UVA and UVB rays. That being said, titanium dioxide also offers solid broad-spectrum protection (blocks both UVA and UVB rays) but not as much as zinc oxide. Often a zinc-oxide based sunscreen is bolstered by titanium dioxide. Both minerals are considered nontoxic.
Q. If a sunscreen is labeled “biodegradable,” is that the same as reef safe? A. Not necessarily. Biodegradable means that when exposed to moisture, heat, or other natural processes the ingredients break down into organic components. While these are generally less harmful than chemical-based sunscreens that can’t break down, some natural ingredients found in sunscreens, such as lavender or eucalyptus oil, are biodegradable but still harmful to reefs.
Q. What’s the difference between non-nanotized and non-coated nanoparticles of zinc oxide?
A. Non-nanotized (or “non-nano” for short) refers to bigger particles, above 100 nanometers in diameter. Nanoparticles of these two compounds that aren’t coated are smaller at less than 35 nanometers in diameter. Because of their minuscule size, they can interact with cells and bring toxicity to marine creatures, including fish and coral. They also can cause coral bleaching.